B Pharmacy 1st Semester Syllabus
Table of Contents
Human Anatomy And Physiology 1
Introduction to human body
Definition and scope of anatomy and physiology, levels of structural organization and body systems, basic life processes, homeostasis, basic anatomical terminology.
Cellular level of organization
Structure and functions of cell, transport across cell membrane, cell division, cell junctions. General principles of cell communication, intracellular signaling pathway activation by extracellular signal molecule, Forms of intracellular signaling: a) Contact-dependent b) Paracrine c) Synaptic d) Endocrine
Tissue level of organization
Classification of tissues, structure, location and functions of epithelial, muscular and nervous and connective tissues.
Structure and functions of skin
Divisions of skeletal system, types of bone, salient features and functions of bones of axial and appendicular skeletal system Organization of skeletal muscle, physiology of muscle contraction, neuromuscular junction
Structural and functional classification, types of joints movements and its articulation
Body fluids and blood
Body fluids, composition and functions of blood, hemopoeisis, formation of hemoglobin, anemia, mechanisms of coagulation, blood grouping, Rh factors, transfusion, its significance and disorders of blood, Reticulo endothelial system.
Lymphatic organs and tissues, lymphatic vessels, lymph circulation and functions of lymphatic system.
Peripheral nervous system
Classification of peripheral nervous system: Structure and functions of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Origin and functions of spinal and cranial nerves.
Structure and functions of eye, ear, nose and tongue and their disorders.
Heart - anatomy of heart, blood circulation, blood vessels, structure and functions of artery, vein and capillaries, elements of conduction system of heart and heart beat, its regulation by autonomic nervous system, cardiac output, cardiac cycle. Regulation of blood pressure, pulse, electrocardiogram and disorders of heart.
1. Pharmaceutical analysis
- Definition and scope
- Different techniques of analysis
- Methods of expressing concentration
- Primary and secondary standards.
- Preparation and standardization of various molar and normal solutions- Oxalic acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium thiosulphate, sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate and ceric ammonium sulphate
2. Errors: Sources of errors, types of errors, methods of minimizing errors, accuracy, precision and significant figures
3. Pharmacopoeia, Sources of impurities in medicinal agents,limit tests.
Acid base titration: Theories of acid base indicators, classification of acid base titrations and theory involved in titrations of strong, weak, and very weak acids and bases, neutralization curves
Non aqueous titration: Solvents, acidimetry and alkalimetry titration and estimation of Sodium benzoate and Ephedrine HCl
Precipitation titrations: Mohr’s method, Volhard’s, Modified Volhard’s, Fajans method, estimation of sodium chloride.
Complexometric titration: Classification, metal ion indicators, masking and demasking reagents, estimation of Magnesium sulphate, and calcium gluconate.
Gravimetry: Principle and steps involved in gravimetric analysis. Purity of the precipitate: co-precipitation and post precipitation, Estimation of barium sulphate.
Basic Principles,methods and application of diazotisation titration. Estimation of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate.
- Concepts of oxidation and reduction
- Types of redox titrations (Principles and applications)
Cerimetry, Iodimetry, Iodometry, Bromatometry, Dichrometry, Titration with potassium iodate
Electrochemical methods of analysis
Conductometry - Introduction, Conductivity cell, Conductometric titrations, applications.
Potentiometry - Electrochemical cell, construction and working of reference (Standard hydrogen, silver chloride electrode and calomel electrode) and indicator electrodes (metal electrodes and glass electrode), methods to determine end point of potentiometric titration and applications.
Polarography - Principle, Ilkovic equation, construction and working of dropping mercury electrode and rotating platinum electrode, applications.
Historical background and development of profession of pharmacy:
History of profession of Pharmacy in India in relation to pharmacy education, industry and organization, Pharmacy as a career, Pharmacopoeias: Introduction to IP, BP, USP and Extra Pharmacopoeia.
Dosage forms: Introduction to dosage forms, classification and definitions
Prescription: Definition, Parts of prescription, handling of Prescription and Errors in prescription.
Posology: Definition, Factors affecting posology. Pediatric dose calculations based on age, body weight and body surface area.
Pharmaceutical calculations: Weights and measures - Imperial & Metric system, Calculations involving percentage solutions, alligation, proof spirit and isotonic solutions based on freezing point and molecular weight.
Powders: Definition, classification, advantages and disadvantages,Simple & compound powders - official preparations, dusting powders, effervescent, efflorescent and hygroscopic powders, eutectic mixtures. Geometric dilutions.
Liquid dosage forms: Advantages and disadvantages of liquid dosage forms. Excipients used in formulation of liquid dosage forms. Solubility enhancement techniques
Monophasic liquids: Definitions and preparations of Gargles, Mouthwashes, Throat Paint, Eardrops, Nasal drops, Enemas, Syrups, Elixirs, Liniments and Lotions.
Biphasic liquids: -
Suspensions: Definition, advantages and disadvantages, classifications, Preparation of suspensions; Flocculated and Deflocculated suspension & stability problems and methods to overcome.
Emulsions: Definition, classification, emulsifying agent, test for the identification of type ofEmulsion, Methods of preparation & stability problems and methods to overcome.
Suppositories: Definition, types, advantages and disadvantages, types of bases, methods of preparations. Displacement value & its calculations, evaluation of suppositories.
Pharmaceutical incompatibilities: Definition, classification, physical, chemical and therapeutic incompatibilities with examples.
Semisolid dosage forms: Definitions, classification, mechanisms and factors influencing dermal penetration of drugs. Preparation of ointments, pastes, creams and gels. Excipients used in semi solid dosage forms. Evaluation of semi solid dosages forms
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry
Impurities in pharmaceutical substances: History of Pharmacopoeia, Sources and types of impurities, principle involved in the limit test for Chloride, Sulphate, Iron, Arsenic, Lead and Heavy metals, modified limit test for Chloride and Sulphate
General methods of preparation, assay for the compounds superscripted with asterisk (*), properties and medicinal uses of inorganic compounds belonging to the following classes
Acids, Bases and Buffers: Buffer equations and buffer capacity in general, buffers in pharmaceutical systems, preparation, stability, buffered isotonic solutions, measurements of tonicity, calculations and methods of adjusting isotonicity.
Major extra and intracellular electrolytes: Functions of major physiological ions, Electrolytes used in the replacement therapy: Sodium chloride\*, Potassium chloride, Calcium gluconate* and Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS), Physiological acid base balance.
Dental products: Dentifrices, role of fluoride in the treatment of dental caries, Desensitizing agents, Calcium carbonate, Sodium fluoride, and Zinc eugenol cement.
Acidifiers: Ammonium chloride* and Dil. HCl
Antacid: Ideal properties of antacids, combinations of antacids, Sodium Bicarbonate\*, Aluminum hydroxide gel, Magnesium hydroxide mixture
Cathartics: Magnesium sulphate, Sodium orthophosphate, Kaolin and Bentonite
Antimicrobials: Mechanism, classification, Potassiu permanganate, Boric acid, Hydrogen peroxide\*, Chlorinated lime\*, Iodine and its preparations
Expectorants: Potassium iodide, Ammonium chloride*.
Emetics: Copper sulphate\*, Sodium potassium tartarate
Haematinics: Ferrous sulphate\*, Ferrous gluconate
Poison and Antidote: Sodium thiosulphate\*, Activated charcoal, Sodium nitrite333
Astringents: Zinc Sulphate, Potash Alum
Radiopharmaceuticals: Radio activity, Measurement of radioactivity, Properties of α, β, γ radiations, Half life, radio isotopes and study of radio isotopes - Sodium iodide I131, Storage conditions, precautions & pharmaceutical application of radioactive substances.