# Biostatistics And Research Methodology

## Unit 1

Introduction: Statistics, Biostatistics, Frequency distribution

Measures of central tendency: Mean, Median, Mode- Pharmaceutical examples

Measures of dispersion: Dispersion, Range, standard deviation, Pharmaceutical problems

Correlation: Definition, Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation, Multiple correlation - Pharmaceuticals examples

Open Unit

## Unit 2

Regression: Curve fitting by the method of least squares, fitting the lines y= a + bx and x = a + by, Multiple regression, standard error of regression - Pharmaceutical Examples

Probability: Definition of probability, Binomial distribution, Normal distribution,

Poisson’s distribution, properties - problems

Sample, Population, large sample, small sample, Null hypothesis, alternative hypothesis, sampling, essence of sampling, types of sampling, Error-I type, Error-II type, Standard error of mean (SEM) - Pharmaceutical examples

Parametric test: t-test(Sample, Pooled or Unpaired and Paired) , ANOVA, (One way and Two way), Least Significance difference

Open Unit

## Unit 3

Non Parametric tests: Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Friedman Test

Introduction to Research: Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, Experiential Design Technique, plagiarism

Graphs: Histogram, Pie Chart, Cubic Graph, response surface plot, Counter Plot graph

Designing the methodology: Sample size determination and Power of a study, Report writing and presentation of data, Protocol, Cohorts studies, Observational studies, Experimental studies, Designing clinical trial, various phases.

Open Unit

## Unit 4

Blocking and confounding system for Two-level factorials

Regression modeling: Hypothesis testing in Simple and Multiple regressionmodels

Introduction to Practical components of Industrial and Clinical Trials Problems: Statistical Analysis Using Excel, SPSS, MINITAB®, DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS, R - Online Statistical Software’s to Industrial and Clinical trial approach

Open Unit

## Unit 5

Design and Analysis of experiments:

Factorial Design: Definition, 2², 2³ design. Advantage of factorial design

Response Surface methodology: Central composite design, Historical design, Optimization Techniques

Open Unit