Pharmacognosy 2

Unit 1

Open

Metabolic pathways in higher plants and their determination

a) Brief study of basic metabolic pathways and formation of different secondary metabolites through these pathways- Shikimic acid pathway, Acetate pathways and Amino acid pathway.
b) Study of utilization of radioactive isotopes in the investigation of Biogenetic studies.

Unit 2

Open
General introduction, composition, chemistry & chemical classes, biosources, therapeutic uses and commercial applications of following
secondary metabolites:
Alkaloids: Vinca, Rauwolfia, Belladonna, Opium,
Phenylpropanoids and Flavonoids: Lignans, Tea, Ruta
Steroids, Cardiac Glycosides & Triterpenoids: Liquorice, Dioscorea, Digitalis
Volatile oils: Mentha, Clove, Cinnamon, Fennel, Coriander,
Tannins: Catechu, Pterocarpus
Resins: Benzoin, Guggul, Ginger, Asafoetida, Myrrh, Colophony
Glycosides: Senna, Aloes, Bitter Almond
Iridoids, Other terpenoids & Naphthaquinones: Gentian, Artemisia, taxus, carotenoids

Unit 3

Open
Isolation, Identification and Analysis of Phytoconstituents
a) Terpenoids: Menthol, Citral, Artemisin
b) Glycosides: Glycyrhetinic acid & Rutin
c) Alkaloids: Atropine,Quinine,Reserpine,Caffeine
d) Resins: Podophyllotoxin, Curcumin

Unit 4

Open
Industrial production, estimation and utilization of the following phytoconstituents: Forskolin, Sennoside, Artemisinin, Diosgenin, Digoxin, Atropine, Podophyllotoxin, Caffeine, Taxol, Vincristine and Vinblastine

Unit 5

Open

Basics of Phytochemistry

Modern methods of extraction, application of latest techniques like Spectroscopy, chromatography and electrophoresis in the isolation, purification and identification of crude drugs.